Monday, December 11, 2017

1491 ....when they reached France


This year the Arabs were defeated, 
                   [an event that many thought could not be done,
and the Treaty of Granada,
                                     [was signed on November 25, 1491.

The surrender of Granada, one could say,
                    [that was the beginning of the end of an Arab epic,
perhaps an epic like the Homeric epics of Iliad and Odyssey,
                                                             [relatively a recent epoch.

The Arab conquests began in the 7th century,
                                                              (620 anno Domini, approximately the year).

Starting from the Arabian peninsula, they conquered the then half known world,
         [and they only stopped due to difficulties when they reached France, oh dear.

The resulting empire included Central Asia, the Middle East,
             [North Africa, Sicily, and the Iberian Peninsula, to the Pyrenees footpaths,
while the European nations lived in a state of anxiety.
        [that the army of Arabs could at any time lie waste......these limits could pass.

The conquest of Europe was turned away
                                                  [by Charles Martel ruler of Francia in October 732,
and the withdrawal of occupiers succeeded Ferdinand and Isabella,
                             [with the so-called "reconquista wars", known to all, and to you.

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* ''IT COULD BE OTHERWISE in verse''
Texts and Narration: Odysseus Heavilayias - ROTTERDAM //
Language adjustments and text adaptation: Kellene G Safis - CHICAGO//
Digital adaptation and text editing: Cathy Rapakoulia Mataraga - PIRAEUS//
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*The Reconquista[a] (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula in the about 780 years between the Islamic conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the last Islamic state in Iberia at Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492. The Reconquista was completed just before the Spanish discovery of the Americas—the "New World"—which ushered in the era of the Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires. Since the mid-19th century, the idea of a 'reconquest' took hold in Spain associated with its rising nationalism and colonialism.
Western historians have marked the beginning of the Reconquista with the Battle of Covadonga (718 or 722), one of the first victories by Christian military forces since the 711 Islamic conquest of Iberia by the Umayyad Caliphate. In that small battle, a group led by the nobleman Pelagius defeated a caliphate's army in the mountains of northern Iberia and established the independent Christian Kingdom of Asturias.




*Treaty of Granada (1491) The Treaty of Granada was signed and ratified on November 25, 1491 between Boabdil, the sultan of Granada, and Ferdinand and Isabella, the King and Queen of Castile, León, Aragon and Sicily. It ended the Granada War which had started in 1482, culminating in the siege and battle of Granada beginning in spring 1491.
Also known as the Capitulation of Granada, the treaty provided a short truce, followed by the relinquishment in January 1492 of the sovereignty of the Moorish Emirate of Granada (founded five centuries earlier) to the Catholic monarchs of Spain. The treaty guaranteed a set of rights to the Moors, including religious tolerance and fair treatment in return for their surrender and capitulation.
The Catholics' subsequent policy inviting the Moors to either convert or be expelled triggered an uprising by the Moors in 1500, and the Catholic side used this uprising to argue that the Moors had violated the Treaty and justify revoking its provisions. See Morisco rebellions in Granada.


 ELEGHOS... at history




Monday, December 4, 2017

1490 As a sign of gratitude, the Maria Komnenos statue........

Maria Komnenos, a symbol of heroism

After the concession of the island of Lemnos,
                  [by the Venetians to the Turks with a treaty a year ago,
the Christians did not just lose the island,
                                       [they also lost the spring and the rainbow.

With these two names they called Maria,
                       [because of her heavenly beauty, her attractiveness,
but history said Maria was not a beautiful woman,
         [she is known as a heroine because of her martial activeness..

During the First Ottoman–Venetian War,
     [Lemnos and other Greek islands were seized by the Venetians.
Ten years later the Turks marched against Lemnos but found....
      [in front of them the descendants of the Spartans, the Grecians.

The Greek people in Lemnos joined the Venetian forces,
                                                                  [to battle against the Ottoman Turks.

Maria's father died defending the fort, then they all saw,
   [something unthinkable, metaphysical that exist in her, something that lurks.
She picked up his sword, which was lying beside him,
                                  [and then attacked against the enemy with much ferocity,
(inspiring the other people of Lemnos)
                                                     [with unprecedented flexibility and virtuosity.

This counter-attack forced the Turkish invaders,
                                                            [to take their ships and flee from the port.
So Maria Komnenos became a symbol of heroism, unexpectedly a woman
                                                          [the Ottoman plans she managed to thwart.

No one ever heard, what the fate was of this heroine after that war,
                               [but outside the yard of the Church and overlooking the sea,
stands the statue of the local hero holding up a sword,
                           [an indication of the gratitude of the inhabitants, an ethical fee.

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* ''IT COULD BE OTHERWISE in verse''
Texts and Narration: Odysseus Heavilayias - ROTTERDAM //
Language adjustments and text adaptation: Kellene G Safis - CHICAGO//
Digital adaptation and text editing: Cathy Rapakoulia Mataraga - PIRAEUS//
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 ELEGHOS... at history