Tuesday, January 9, 2018

1494, Naples ie Parthenope


The first Greek Settlements were established in the Naples
                                                            [in the 2nd millennium BC,
and later a larger mainland colony known as Parthenope,
                                          [close to the current town near the sea,
developed around the 9-8th century,
                       [and was renamed Neapolis in the 6th century BC.

Since then these lands have been occupied by many conquerors,
                                      [such as Lombards, Normans, Aragonians,
after of course the long-term occupation............     by the Romans.

Many centuries have passed,
                                          [wars and changes came to the this area,
which is now called the Kingdom of Naples,
                                 [and this year the inhabitants were in hysteria,
because the "Treaty of Barcelona" was signed
           [between France and the Aragon, ie between the two kings.

Τhe Crown of Aragon vowed to maintain neutrality
           [during the French invasion...   the Naples alarm bell, rings.

Charles VIII invaded the Italian peninsula,
                                                    [creating fears of rape and pillage.

There was terror and panic in every Italian province,
                                                                             [town, and village,
due to the large war-torn and well-equipped army,
                                                                               [of 25,000 men.

The Italian states, however, quickly realized the danger, and then,
had agreed to create an alliance,
                (known as the "League of Venice") to cut off his return..

The French army occupied Naples,
                   [but was defeated by the League*, Ιtaly's a new upturn.

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* ''IT COULD BE OTHERWISE in verse''
Texts and Narration: Odysseus Heavilayias - ROTTERDAM //
Language adjustments and text adaptation: Kellene G Safis -CHICAGO//
Digital adaptation and text editing: Cathy Rapakoulia Mataraga - PIRAEUS

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French troops of Charles VIII
*Italic League : The speed of the French advance, together with the brutality of their sack of Mordano, left the other states of Italy in shock. Ludovico Sforza, realizing that Charles had a claim to Milan as well as Naples, and would probably not be satisfied by the annexation of Naples alone, turned to Pope Alexander VI, who was embroiled in a power game of his own with France and various Italian states over his attempts to secure secular fiefdoms for his children. The Pope formed an alliance of several opponents of French hegemony in Italy: himself; Ferdinand of Aragon, who was also King of Sicily; the Emperor Maximilian I; Ludovico in Milan; and the Republic of Venice. (Venice's ostensible purpose in joining the League was to oppose the Ottoman Empire, while its actual objective was French expulsion from Italy.) This alliance was known as the Holy League of 1495, or as the League of Venice.




 ELEGHOS... at history


Friday, January 5, 2018

1493, When the world in the two was subdivided


Inspired mathematicians have covered the earth
                       [with countless hypothetical parallels and meridians.
Because of them we are all, either Indo-Europeans, or Chinese,
                                                                    [or Filipinos, or Indians,
do to them for our entire life we are accompanied
                                                                             [by two such lines,
(Latitude-Longitude) to the great joy of the "Big Brother",
                             [who, on the basis of these lines, makes destines ....

The lands to the East would belong to Portugal,
 [and the lands to the West to Castile, in the year 1493 the Pope decided,
Pope Alexander VI* * who issued the edict (Papal Bull)"Inter caetera"              *Rodrigo Borgia
                            [and so, in a way, the world in the two was subdivided.

People at that time did not know the meridians (longitude)
                                                                      [to determine the border line .....
so the Pope's edict defined the boundary
                        [a vertical line 100 leagues west Azores, such kind of line.

Humanity at that time had not yet realized what the ancient Greeks,
                                              [Eratosthenes, Hipparchus and Ptolemy, did !!

Following the Pope's mandate, Lisbon was displeased,
              [but the people were very happy on the Main Square* in Madrid.            *Plaza Mayor 
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* ''IT COULD BE OTHERWISE in verse''
Texts and Narration: Odysseus Heavilayias - ROTTERDAM //
Language adjustments and text adaptation: Kellene G Safis - CHICAGO//
Digital adaptation and text editing: Cathy Rapakoulia Mataraga - PIRAEUS
_____________________________________________________


*A meridian (a line of longitude) a great circle. The notion of longitude was developed by the Greek Eratosthenes (c. 276 BC – c. 195 BC) in Alexandria, and Hipparchus (c. 190 BC – c. 120 BC) in Rhodes, and applied to a large number of cities by the geographer Strabo (64/63 BC – c. 24 AD). But it was Ptolemy (c. AD 90 – c. AD 168) who first used a consistent meridian for a world map in his

Geographia. 

Ptolemy's 1st projection, redrawn under Maximus Planudes around 1300, using 
a prime meridian east of Africa


Purple line dividing the non-Christian world between Castileand Portugal: (the 1494 Tordesillas meridian (purple)



 ELEGHOS... at history